The objective of protecting the partners` intellectual property is managed by joint research and development agreements and/or separate intellectual property (IP) agreements. These IP agreements define both the basic IP and the IP, which should be developed by the project activities. Infringements are typically caused by the use or sale of a patented invention without the permission of the patent owner. The scope of the patented invention or the scope of protection is defined in the claims of the granted patent. In many legal systems, there is a safe haven to use a patented invention for research. This shelter does not exist in the United States, unless the research is conducted for purely philosophical purposes or to collect data in order to prepare an application for administrative authorization of a drug.  Typically, cases of patent infringement are subject to civil treatment (e.g..B. in the United States), but several jurisdictions also include criminal offenses (e.g. B Argentina, China, France, Japan, Russia, South Korea).  The definition of intellectual property is essential for a number of agreements and clauses. Examples are generally classified into two categories: those that use formal definitions of patents, copyrights, and trademarks (usually from statutes); and those who use broader concepts of invention, authorship and know-how.
The first can only cover registered IP rights; This last point is obviously much broader. Similarly, it is based on the fact that the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement obliges WTO members to set minimum standards of legal protection, but its objective of having a “one-fits-all” law on the protection of intellectual property has been viewed with controversy over the differences in countries` levels of development.  Despite the controversy, the 1995 agreement for the first time fully integrated intellectual property rights into the global trading system and established itself as the most comprehensive agreement in the world.  If you assign intellectual property, this must always be done in writing by formal agreement. Many IP rights cannot be assigned correctly without a written document. For example, section 90(3) of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 states that “the transfer of copyright is not effective unless it is signed in writing by or on behalf of the copyright holder”. The WIPO Treaty and several related international agreements emphasize that the protection of intellectual property rights is essential to maintaining economic growth. Wipo`s Intellectual Property Manual sets out two reasons for legislating on intellectual property: copyright infringement is the reproduction, dissemination, display or performance of a work or the production of derivative works without the permission of the copyright owner, which is usually a publishing house or other enterprise represented or mandated by the creator of the work. It is often referred to as “hacking”. .