According to the WTO, it can be so important to promise that there will be no removal of a trade barrier as to reduce one, as if it were predictive for businesses. This will encourage investment, create jobs and enable consumers to fully exploit the benefits of competition – choice and lower prices. The UK and THE EU are negotiating a trade deal that is expected to start on 1 January 2021, when the new UK-EU relationship will begin. Of course, this clear division does not mean that the ratification of free trade agreements lacks democratic legitimacy. Responsibility for trade policy rests with the EU; since the Lisbon Treaty, trade agreements must be ratified by the European Parliament. Nevertheless, Member States` parliaments should be informed in a timely and comprehensive manner of negotiations on free trade agreements in order to allow for a well-informed public debate. A transparent negotiation process also includes the publication of the European Commission`s negotiating mandates. The UK will leave the European Single Market and the EU Customs Union on 1 January 2021.  A trade agreement would facilitate trade between the EU and the UK, which accounts for 49% of international trade in the UK.  A Canadian-style trade agreement would offer the United Kingdom a reduction in most EU-UK tariffs, without removing VAT, customs and plant protection controls.  The rules for its dominant financial services sector are of particular importance to the United Kingdom.
 However, negotiations on free trade agreements have been the subject of increasingly public debate. The transatlantic trade and investment partnership (TTIP) negotiations, the EU-US free trade agreement, are an example. Negotiations on the EU-Canada Free Trade Agreement (CETA) have also been controversial. Months of bitter struggle by political actors have seriously questioned the effectiveness and reliability of European trade policy decision-making and have undermined the EU`s international credibility and effectiveness. In March 2020, the EU fisheries policy negotiations were linked to trade negotiations, while the UK intends to distinguish them.  One of the points to be negotiated is the length of the agreement: the EU is waiting for a lasting agreement, the UK expects a Norwegian agreement, such as an annual agreement, to be in line with fish biology, fishermen`s aspirations and fishing science.  The EU can make concessions to Britain on fisheries, which depend on British financing concessions.  According to the UN Trade and Development Conference, a trade agreement between the UK and the EU would help limit the decline in UK exports to the EU to 9%, while the expected decline would be 14% if it were not concluded.
 A free trade agreement aims to promote trade – usually on goods, but also sometimes on services – by making it cheaper. This is often achieved by reducing or eliminating so-called tariffs – taxes or taxes on cross-border trade. The judgment of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on the free trade agreement with Singapore in May 2017 clarified the areas of a free trade agreement under the exclusive competence of the EU and the elements that require ratification at Member State level. This important decision will clarify future negotiations for a free trade agreement. Before the ruling, all free trade agreements were always ratified by both the EU and the respective national parliaments of the Member States. Since the ruling, authorisation within the Member States is only required if certain parts of the agreement fall within the shared jurisdiction. In Germany, for example, the Bundestag and, if necessary, the Federal Assembly as a whole would vote on the agreement. In May 2019, the ECJ also found that the newly designed investment judicial system, integrated into CETA, was